• Published on Aug 4, 2019
  • High detail 3d animations and explanations of the inner workings of Chernobyl nuclear power station. Showing why it was so vulnerable to blowing itself up and how it was different from western reactors.
    Illustrated here are:
    The absence a reactor pressure vessel and containment structure.
    A size comparison with the Fukushima reactor and its containment layers.
    The uranium fuel assemblies and graphite bricks.
    The control room location.
    Close up views of the explosion crater with the reactor lid nicknamed "Elena" shown flying through the air.
    The temporary radiation shield "sarcophagus" and the final permanent confinement arch.
    Chernobyl was a nuclear power station in Ukraine, Soviet Union. Its reactor blew up on Saturday 26 April 1986 at 1:23 am.
    Music by Borrtex tracks 1.Realization 2.Universe 3.Changing
    Footage used in this video with permission:
    Thanks to Neil for allowing use of footage Pripyat and Control room
    Footage of the ferris wheel operating. See 6:48 :
    Very useful drawing resources:
    Thank you to Ilya Fedoseev for his 3d Model of the entire power station
    Thanks to Barty Millar for models of the reactor hall
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 3 354

  • Karl
    Karl 2 years ago +2288

    Incredible animations! Perfect for those with a technical mindset that want more detail that what is currently easily available!!!

    • nurotn
      nurotn 8 months ago

      @David A. They still do. And more than shown on map in video. And last of Chernobyl units was switched off in year 2000.

    • Glendy Stolberg
      Glendy Stolberg Year ago

      Yes this helped me so much
      Like all of it clicked cuz I was so confused how it all was in relation
      Thank you

    • Heather MacLean
      Heather MacLean Year ago


  • Anant
    Anant Year ago +1294

    Clearly there are some people in the comments who received their doctors degree from the university of HBO

    • Pooty Pump
      Pooty Pump Month ago

      Thats where I got mine.

    • Austria Hungary
      Austria Hungary 8 months ago

      @Grahf Zero nah i seen worse they’ll be fine

    • L P
      L P Year ago

      @henry How can you not tell that he’s being sarcastic.......

    • Bradley Shende
      Bradley Shende Year ago

      This may be the best comment on commenters I've ever read on You Tube.

  • bigjaffa02
    bigjaffa02 Year ago +19

    The 3D models are incredibly detailed and have helped me understand what happened. Thanks for your efforts in producing this.

  • Benjamin Flagg
    Benjamin Flagg Year ago +42

    I was just randomly on a Chernobyl “kick,” if you wanna call it that, and was just thinking “man, I wish there was a really good cutaway 3D model describing the location and the systems ‘under the curtain’ “, and then this popped up. It was EXACTLY what I was looking for, and then some. Thank you, and wonderful job!

    • Māris Janelsiņš
      Māris Janelsiņš Year ago +1

      Microchip planted by Bill Gates in your head put this in your recomendations lol

  • FalconFlurry
    FalconFlurry Year ago +979

    "This city is impregnable" -Babylon, 539 BCE
    "This ship cannot sink" -Titanic, 1912
    "This reactor cannot explode" -Chernobyl, 1986
    I'm starting to notice a pattern here

    • Truth chan studio
      Truth chan studio Month ago

      US military the strongest - US itself

    • Cris von Hansen Smith
      Cris von Hansen Smith 8 months ago

      @Cryptfire 🤣

    • Cris von Hansen Smith
      Cris von Hansen Smith 8 months ago

      and it still going on, nowadays....

    • jose carlos
      jose carlos 9 months ago

      Diatlov's line might have been something like: "Explain to me exactly how an RBKM reactor explodes?"...the rest is prologue.

    • Satoshi
      Satoshi Year ago +1

      "Real communism has never been tried" - Anonymous leftist clown

  • Jesse Pinkman
    Jesse Pinkman Year ago +170

    rest in peace to all the heros going in there and make the world a safer place

    • Alaric The Great.
      Alaric The Great. 5 months ago

      @Oliwier M they where soldiers

    • Precision Haze
      Precision Haze 7 months ago +2

      @Oliwier M those weren't firefighters.....

    • Oliwier M
      Oliwier M 8 months ago +2

      That three fireman who leaked radioactive water and saved World from other explosion from lava room up

  • tropickman
    tropickman Year ago +39

    The reactor had operated for 20 years prior. It had design flaws, but this was caused by negligence of Dyatlov and 2 of his techs.
    The reactor was undergoing a 24 hour shut down procedure, allowing for a specific test. The test involved disconnecting one of the turbines from the reactor, as it was being wound down, and using its energy to power water pumps. The test should have been a one off, lasting only 45 seconds.
    Anatoly Dyatlov (head technician on midnight shift) planned to lower output to 700 Mw, the lowest setting at which the reactor should have been operated.
    But he failed to properly set it up and the output fell below 100 Mw. Instead of allowing it to shut down, he tried to bring the reactor output back up to 700 Mw, in order to perform the test.
    To do this, he overrode safety systems and warnings, and ordered graphite control rods MANUALLY WITHDRAWN from the reactor.
    The rods are a critical safety mechanism; if the system senses a run off reaction, it will automatically lower these rods into reactor and sap off energy output.
    Sadly, he ordered the rods disconnected from the system, so that it would not interfere with his quest for more heat.
    Once the positive heat loop kicked in, it kept increasing the water temperature in the reactor, in turn causing higher fission reaction, and on and on. The heat and pressure built up, until reactor 4 housing and piping exploded, propelling a 1,000-ton concrete slab above it clean off the building.
    The reactor was now exposed; contaminated water and coolant were spraying everywhere.
    Dyatlov was sentenced to 10 years of prison, but was released in 1991 after collapse of USSR. He tried to scape goat authorities, apparently ordering him to press on with a not so important test and jeopardize billions of dollars and national catastrophe. In reality, he was public enemy #1 and public demanded his execution. He died in 1995 from heart attack.

    • Alex Lopez
      Alex Lopez Year ago +4

      @Merthalophor definitely poorly built. An emergency shut down button that makes the reactor explode?

    • Merthalophor
      Merthalophor Year ago +7

      This is important. The reactor didn't explode because it was poorly built, it exploded due to mismanagement. If the USSR hadn't been organized the way it was, and perhaps even if Dyatlov hadn't been employed there, we'd not question the safety of nuclear reactors, even if RBMK were deployed just like in Chernobyl.

  • Phung Quyen
    Phung Quyen Year ago +12

    Thank you for the visual. I watched the HBO series Chernobyl 2019 and understood the working mechanism of an RBMK reactor, somewhat. This video showed me how the fuel rods and control rods looked like and how they were arranged.

  • Stella Sammy
    Stella Sammy Year ago +20

    I lived in Moldova near Ucraine and Mom used to say that something awful happened! Watched many videos to understand what actually happened but only with your video I got an idea cause its explained for normal simple people ! Thank you!

    • jose carlos
      jose carlos 9 months ago

      Many don't realize that Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, and that Belarus as well as Ukraine, not to mention all the countries which were also irradiated by fallout, were damaged for centuries. Ukraine was considered the "breadbasket of the Soviet Union"...

  • Rockin' Ross
    Rockin' Ross Year ago +42

    Beautiful. My dad worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission here in the US when this happened. I was 16 at the time & it’s all he talked about for a good while.

  • Christopher Wojtan
    Christopher Wojtan Year ago +11

    The 3D layouts and shown discussion of the reactor function is fantastic. Its hard to get a grasp of some Nuclear plant functions without some kind of visual reference. Thank you for the hard work.

    -MARTITO- Year ago +8

    This is a great video with very detailed animations and it can be clearly seen that a lot of work has been put into it - great job! The only part I didn't appreciate much was the constant propagation of the phrases: "If this was a western reactor all of this would not have happened...". No one is safe and it doesn't matter if it is a Soviet reactor or a so called "western", science can't be limited by politics and should not be used to propagate political views.

    • Dietrich von Zorger
      Dietrich von Zorger Year ago

      But it's true - why shouldn't author say it? Commies purposely ignored safety measures because they wanted to save money. Apart from this commies on purpose hid critical information (which could prevent this catastrophe at all) from operating staff of the power plant - event, similar to one that caused explosion, had happened on another RBMK some years prior! And to add insult to injury commies in attempts to swipe info `bout catastrophe exposed thousands of people to radiation.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago +4

      I actually entirely agree with you re the kommie bashing and western reactors bit. But unfortunately this can’t be edited once the video is posted. I’m considering doing a remake and just sticking to the facts.

  • FIFA Sims
    FIFA Sims Year ago +6

    Thank you so much. Someone finally explained and showed just exactly how a rbmk reactor looks and works. I've seen a lot of explanations, and 2d graphics but you really need an in depth 3d graphic to really understand

  • Gaz
    Gaz Year ago +1

    Thank you for this. As someone who isn't well versed in science, this was really easy for me to understand, and the first time I've really learned exactly how the the disaster happened from a technical standpoint.

  • Miko
    Miko Year ago +7

    Hi Mike. I appreciate your good work but in my opinion the comparison between driving without a seat belt and a lack of pressure vessel was too dramatic. There is a lot of reactors operating without a pressure vessel. For example CANDU reactors don't have pressure vessel design and those can also be refuelled while operating at full power. There were flaws in design with RBMK reactors but these weren't the lack of pressure vessels.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago +4

      I agree and appreciate your comment. Having better knowledge now, its clear I need to remake the video and remove the inaccuracies you mention. There also is no such thing as a “western reactor”. There were early graphite reactors around the world and later water moderated reactors including in Russia. Right now I am finishing off my video about the AZ-5 tip effect. Then I’ll have the time for the remake with additional visuals.

    GARGS 10 months ago +8

    Wow.. I’ve never seen a more easy to follow in depth explanation of what happened here 👏🏼👏🏼 this lets me know exactly what happened finally! Thank you!

  • Rafael Barbosa Costa
    Rafael Barbosa Costa 2 years ago +2

    wow your animation has a lot of details, one thing nobody can deny is how beautiful and strong a rbmk reactor is. If it weren't for project failures, which caused that accident, it would be a reactor worthy of history for its beautiful engineering.

  • H8table
    H8table Year ago +1

    Great video. The animations were great and gave me an idea of how massive the scale of block 4 was, in turn making the extent of the purely physical damage hit home. Considering the regime and lack of understanding of the reactor type I feel sorry for guy's like Akimov who couldn't understand how things went wrong so badly, but were left paying the price.

  • Jarrod Pritchard
    Jarrod Pritchard 2 years ago +2

    I just came across this, I love it. I find it fascinating how it all went down from a single botched test and the errors that lead to it. Great work!

  • Ross Rock
    Ross Rock 2 years ago +42

    CANDUs and RBMK's share some design similarities (online refuelling, pressure tubes instead of pressure vessel, physical size due to low-enriched / natural uranium) but have some significant safety-related design differences. CANDUs are moderated by liquid heavy water, not graphite, and the water-filled reactor is immersed in another large tank of light water called the shield tank. As a result, the CANDUs have a significant amount of passive cooling capacity, and water doesn't catch fire. Another critical difference is the CANDUs are fully inside a concrete containment structure, and the Ontario Hydro multi-unit stations have a massive negative pressure vacuum building to reduce pressure within the containment building if there is a large steam release in containment as a result of an accident. CANDUs do have a positive void reactivity, and for this reason they have two independent, fast-acting shutdown systems that are physically separate from each other and the control systems. Each system is designed to shut down the reactor in a matter of seconds on its own without needing the other system, however both systems are designed to initiate shutdown independently and immediately if a design-basis accident occurs. Also, following the Chernobyl event Canadian engineers travelled to the Soviet Union to learn what happened and determine if anything needed to be fixed or addressed in the CANDU design. There weren't any significant design issues identified in the CANDUs, but one operating change was to reduce the maximum flux tilt allowed within the CANDUs before reactor trip is initiated. This reduced maximum flux tilt limit is still in use today. Great video, btw. (Edit: corrected "end shield tank" to "shield tank". The end shields are distinct from the shield tank.)

    • The Power of Dreams
      The Power of Dreams Year ago

      @Ma B Well, since a few months ago Rosatom started using in their old reactors what they call REMIX which is 7% Plutonium mixed with depleted uranium, the big challenge that using Plutonium in Oxide fuel presents is that it has half the thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide which is by itself a very poor conductor of heat, so a lot of research is in metallic fuel or carbide ceramic fuels.
      While the Candu is not as a attractive today as it was decades ago when uranium enrichment was expensive, it still can do interesing things, the Candu-9 which is based on Darlington has a power between 900 to 1300MWe, or 3000-4000MWt, it can also use spent fuel from PWR that can't work under 1% enrichment, also because it has a conversion ratio of 0.9:1 when breeds plutonium it would be a nice thing if we manage this whole breeder reactor thing
      Because on U-233 a LWR is a Plutonium isobreeder, but a Candu on U-233 is more a full plutonium breeder

    • The Power of Dreams
      The Power of Dreams Year ago +1

      @Jingchen Bi The problem of making a reactor as large as the epr, or larger than 3.3GWt is that it becomes hard to engineer and construct, originally Rosatom didn't plan the VVER-1200 but rather a VVER-1500 or VVER-1800, they ditched it for the VVER-1200 because it was easier to do, as a result they build those things in their country for 1800U$D/KWe, and the VVER-TOI they are in road to do it for less than 1400U$D/KWe
      The sweetspot for nuclear power size is around 2700-3300MWt, where scalability and size meet, larger than that and you need a higher degree of engineering to guarantee the safety of a 4.5GWt reactor that has pretty much the same pressure vessel as a 3GWt one, as such the level of engineering of the safety systems increases more than the possible benefits of a larger thermal output
      The workhorse of france's nuclear industry has been the 900MWe class, while the reactor on which the epr is based, the N4 has been taken 15 years to construct in chooz and civaux.The EPR-2 hopefully will have around 1300MWe and 3200MWt, it simply becomes less challenging to build.
      The same issue happened to South korea, they builded the OPR-1000 for 1900U$D/KWe, and when they decided to supersize it into the APR-1400 they ended building those for 2250U$D/KWe, they are planning to replace it with the iPower with a output of 1200MWe and 3200MWt
      Taishan 1&2 costed around 2300U$D/KWe, sure better than Flamanville and Olkiluoto, but not good enough to be better than the 900MWe french ones.
      The lower construction time of taishan and less delays has to deal with the fresh experience the chinese have at building reactors, and the more fordist and direct approach they have, they like to have everything built before starting construction, while in europe and the usa they went for a more toyotist way of doing things, or in-time logistics.

    • The Power of Dreams
      The Power of Dreams Year ago

      @Jingchen Bi France? Not really, today, this very day, the leader of nuclear industry is really russia, Chinese reactors are copied from the french and the american designs.
      The VVER design is a tremndous PWR.

    • The Power of Dreams
      The Power of Dreams Year ago

      @Jingchen Bi China will build a larger 1400MWe version of the AP-1000 called the CAP-1400 at rocheng, and they have planned 64 of Westinghouse AP1000 fully manufactured in china, westinghouse sold china the manufacturing licences in 2009, they already made 4 of those things

    • The Power of Dreams
      The Power of Dreams Year ago

      @Jingchen Bi They actually thinked in making a larger and cheaper version of the RBMK, the RBMKP-4800 with 14400MWt of power, it was going to be a square block and assembled outside over rails, they would remove a wall of one of the units while still operating, and and move the new reactor block until attaching it to the operating one, so you can imagine a miles long strip of a single modular RBMK-4800. at the 10:42 you can get an idea of what they planned
      it has to be said tho, that they didn't want to stop it there, the RBMK was originally designed to work at 50% efficiency or more using supercritical steam turbines, so the RBMKP-4800 could have outputs of over 7700MWe per block, they also were thinking in using a fast neutron version of it with 15% enriched uranium that could have much higher power outputs since fast rectors have very small cores that they wanted to make very big, the 1300MWe BN-1200 fast breeder will have a core of just 85 in height and 2 meters in diameter.
      it has to be said tho that 1500MWe and thermal power are very diferent things, generally the sweetspot for reactors is around 2700-3300MWt, the EPR thermal output is 4650MWt, the Mitsubishi APWR and General electric ESBWR have 4550MWt and a power ouput of 1780MWe, altho japan planes to scall them down to 3280MWt/1300MWe very large reactors are bastards to build, the Chineses are studying to scale the Westinghouse AP-1000 to make the AP-1400 and then possibly the AP-1700 and AP-2100 with a thermal output over 6000MWt

  • Beyondfubar
    Beyondfubar 10 months ago +5

    Incredible 3d modeling work! Love the visuals!

  • Рамис Басыров

    This is, without exaggeration, one of the best pictorial and schematic on TheXvid on the Chernobyl topic

  • Robert Jones
    Robert Jones Year ago +1

    This is very well documented and remarkably accurate. Thanks for sharing. This was a sad day in history indeed. The entire catastrophe could have been avoided if proper protocols were followed, top level advise adhered to, safety precautions taken, and engineering methods given more intricate and detailed attention. Tragedies like this breaks the heart.

  • madddog9x derby
    madddog9x derby Year ago +199

    The 3d modeling is fucking phenomenal

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago +25

      Thanks 😊 ... then you won’t be dissapointed by my future modelling. It does take time though. Wish I could do this fulltime 😀

  • ActualReality
    ActualReality Year ago +2

    This is awesome. Thanks for the 3D rendering, really helps explain the workings of the reactor.

  • mrmattandmrchay
    mrmattandmrchay 2 years ago +166

    Easy to understand and very well illustrated. Answered a few of my questions as well on the basic design. Loved the panning shot where you showed the before and after at 4:42. Impressive.

    • mrmattandmrchay
      mrmattandmrchay 2 years ago

      @RachelExE I went there about 3 years ago, made a series of videos on the elevators in the old buildings :)

    • RachelExE
      RachelExE 2 years ago +1

      mrmattandmrchay Hay it’s you! I’m one of your subscribers lol! I didn’t knew you where into Chernobyl’s history!

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  2 years ago +10

      I’m really glad you appreciate the underlay of the reactor hall floor and steam separator tank in the rubble. I thought that was very useful to understand how the exposion rubble piled up 👍

  • b3j8
    b3j8 2 years ago

    Just an excellent presentation Mike! Precise, and filled w/meaningful graphics! If I were an Instructor wishing to educate young minds on Chernobyl, THIS video would be a first choice! Thank you!

    JAAPJXBIT Year ago +2

    Thank you. I have been for years trying to piece together in my mind how the entire Chernobyl site fit together along the inside of the reactor building. Outstanding animation!

  • backwardspy
    backwardspy 2 years ago

    Fantastic models and animations, truly stellar work. Thank you for doing this!

  • Tom Walters
    Tom Walters 9 months ago +5

    Nicely done! Thank you for putting this summary together

  • Scott Joplin.
    Scott Joplin. Year ago +2

    I take a liking to physics and nuclear science, and this peaked my interest. this was a very well made video, and really broke down the whole process. I learned a few new things today.

  • Szymonicus
    Szymonicus Year ago +1

    Thanks a lot, for about 5-7 years I was wondering how the Chernobyl reactor was looking inside, and I've learned extra thing like 3 other working RMBK reactor spots :o
    Thank You for really brilliant video!

  • Debbie Kerr
    Debbie Kerr 3 months ago +4

    This is the 2nd video I've watched that was produced by this gentleman, and he has done the best, and most importantly the clearest explanation of the situation. He uses the best animation, and visuals. Thank you for sharing this, and for providing such presicise information.

  • swedisheinherjer
    swedisheinherjer 2 years ago +1

    This is one of the best informative videos about Chernobyl. Awesome 3D animation, no stupid middle-stuff drama, and the ultimate conclusion!
    May god have mercy on the souls who helped to prevent this disaster from getting even worse. Europe should be thankful for their sacrifices.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  2 years ago

      Thanks for the appreciation 😊

  • Sebastian Aquino
    Sebastian Aquino Year ago +1

    Excellent video! I am not a nuclear engineer, but I love the subject so I’ve studied it my self for a while. Thanks for the animations, there where perfect!

  • Sunny
    Sunny 10 months ago +6

    Fantastic animation for novices like me. Thanks. The more read about this, the more interesting it becomes. Unfortunately, Nuclear energy will disappear soon due to these accidents. A cheapest, reliable, zero pollution source of energy but safety is a huge concern.

  • Rishab Ram
    Rishab Ram 2 years ago +933

    I think you are mistaken comrade. RBMK reactors don’t explode.

    • Benjamin Thompson
      Benjamin Thompson 11 months ago

      @GOLTURBO555 it’s called positive void coefficient. The reactor did runaway, with respect to temperature and reactivity. Dyatlov caused it.

    • Benjamin Thompson
      Benjamin Thompson 11 months ago

      This 3d Model isn’t great, but it’s not terrible either.

    • Preston Burton
      Preston Burton Year ago +1

      @AkiraR actually no - USA has one that went just as badly (but contained) - why there are signs in every USA nuclear plant ' NEVER LEAVE THE CORE EXPOSED'

    • AnnieJacobs
      AnnieJacobs Year ago

      Andy Awesome this was copied from a video called Reactor hall unit 2, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant from a comment reply

    • Werner Viehhauser
      Werner Viehhauser Year ago +1

      They do, like all others, if you don't RTFM.

  • MicrowavedAnika
    MicrowavedAnika 8 months ago +2

    The Chernobyl Disaster is one of my favorites, though favorite isn't exactly the right word for it. I've been fascinated by it ever since I first learned about it in late 2013 or early 2014. There's a lot about it that is just absolutely amazing, for better and for worse.

  • CTkey | Vinh Tran
    CTkey | Vinh Tran 2 years ago +12

    This has been the most technological video on youtube about this topic, appreciated your great work man

  • woopimagpie
    woopimagpie Year ago +1

    Great video, the animations are fantastic. Keep up the good work, I'd love to see more.

  • AllBllC llDllEllF
    AllBllC llDllEllF Year ago +1

    Interesting topic, combined with cool animations. Really helps you understand the events leading to the disaster a bit better.
    Hope you guys continue the good work! (if this does not come to late lol)

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      More videos to come. This stuff takes long to make. Your patience will be rewarded

  • reizakagouken
    reizakagouken 5 months ago +1

    The animations helped sooo much in terms of trying to imagine and understand exactly how this all went down. Thank you.

  • Josh Lamoreaux
    Josh Lamoreaux 2 years ago +19

    After watching the HBO series this was exactly what I was looking for! Trying to understand the scale and layout of the plant, your work is appreciated!

    • 100GTAGUY
      100GTAGUY Year ago

      Some of my buddies back in the day got to tour a nuclear power plant in Virginia for a merit badge, and all they could say was just how incredibly massive the entire facility was inside and out (granted also how amazing it was to see certain things operating etc.) But the sheer scale of it all in consideration with the physics behind how it operates, was I guess very awe inspiring for lack of better words I suppose. One of them is now working on a nuclear sub in the Navy ironically enough.

  • Trust me Bro
    Trust me Bro 2 months ago +6

    Great video. There is a slight correction to be made. The reactor did actually slow down with increase in temperature (negative temperature coefficient). However, it did have a positive void coefficient which has nothing to do with temperature but it means the reactivity will increase if the water converts into steam. This usually isn’t an issue cause the water is circulated but on this day they were running a test which required the pumps circulating water to be switched off which allowed the water enough time to boil and convert into steam.

    • Alex Kaseta
      Alex Kaseta 2 months ago +2

      great explanation and username

  • Michael Butorac
    Michael Butorac Year ago +2

    Bravo! Bravo! I learned some things since I have read so much and researched and didn't know the things that were put in perspective like you did. Absolutely brilliant with animation and explanation together. Commented before finishing watching the video.

  • JackPeach1997 - Animation

    Did you render and model all this? Great 3D stuff, never mind your scientific knowledge.

  • Silas Smith
    Silas Smith Year ago +1

    Very impressed with the quality and accuracy of your 3D animations of the reactor. Never before have quality and accuracy of animations of this level been done before with his disaster or the RBMK 1000 reactor. However, you do not have your facts straight. The RBMK 1000 reactor was actually a very safe design and the disaster was centered more on a very flawed execution of a test

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      A very safe design wouldn’t have blown up in such a spectacular fashion .... not so?! The bottom half of the control rods as designed were an accident waiting to happen.

  • Tony Botting
    Tony Botting Year ago +14

    You skirted over one of the most important parts , the poisoning of the reactor . A major contribution to the sequence of events leading to the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was the failure to anticipate the effect of "xenon poisoning" on the rate of the nuclear fission reaction in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor. Which was as a result of the space between the lowest point of the rods and the bottom of the reactor and being run partially shut down for so long before the test was done . Which basically means the reactor was already unstable before the test was done . So many videos about Chernobyl fail to explain this .

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago +2

      My next video on the same channel explains just what you are referring to

    • mikerzisu
      mikerzisu Year ago +1

      Pretty sure this was explained in the HBO series

  • Jamie Neil
    Jamie Neil 2 years ago +1

    That was an interesting video with visuals! The animation made it easier to understand the technical stuff behind happened a lot better

  • Leo
    Leo Year ago +1

    Exactly what I was looking for, a detailed schematic of the reactor as well as the internal designs.

  • Chris Carey
    Chris Carey Year ago +1

    Excellent animation work. Good to see how the site was set out and how it all was supposed to work.

  • TYSuggested
    TYSuggested 2 years ago +52

    This is by far the the best animation and explaination I've seen thus far regarding Chernobyl. Great job and thanks for sharing.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  2 years ago +3

      Thanks TR. Its nice to hear my efforts are appreciated and are helpful. When I coulndt find the visual detail I was interested in on the internet I decided to generate it myself and share it for other likemnided viewers.

    Levan DIDEBULIDZE 2 years ago +1

    Cool footage Mike, explanation is understandable and animation is awesome 👍🏻well done.

  • Gringo Tom
    Gringo Tom Year ago +2

    Fascinating thanks. I've studied this disaster a lot but have never been able to get my head around it fully before seeing this 3d model

  • Artistry Ignited
    Artistry Ignited 2 years ago +2

    Gaday Mike I just want to say that you did an amazing job at this video, I would love to see a 3D animated version like that of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. Please I am so interested to see it if you could make it for TheXvid.
    Thanks again Mike.

  • Tom55data
    Tom55data 7 months ago +10

    0:50 : Western reactors are safer by design but are not fail safe. The largest problem with nuclear reactors is that even when fully "off" - with all control rods in place, so "shut-down", the core still produces heat which must be removed (ie put a large amount of nuclear material in one place - it gets hot even with neutron absorbers around it). The amount of "water" (or other coolant) required is too much for gravity feed (using the differential density based on coolant temperature) which means it needs pumping or energy from somewhere to operate. If there is a total loss of control or power, a reactor even with full shut down it will overheat - this is what happened at Fukashima where water was no longer pumped in the primary circuit, resulting in overheating (while in shutdown state), excess steam pressure and cracking of the primary containment - even though they vented the steam to the atmosphere.
    Although much safer by design, reactors in the west are not fail-safe, but are unlikely to be much more destructive that Fukashima.

    • Chad Wells
      Chad Wells 7 months ago

      @Tom55data Exactly as I said. It’s a design and engineering choice. The choice can be made to develop a walk away safe reactor, such as a pebble bed.

    • Tom55data
      Tom55data 7 months ago

      @Chad Wells then you don't understand all the current nuclear power generation or how nuclear fusion happens. You first port of call is video of Fukashima. That is exactly what happened, it is because decay causes heat, that cannot be turned off , the second problem is Zirconium is used as rod cladding as it is neutron neutral, and that reacts with steam above 500C to create hydrogen, again the problem of Fukashima and the second explosion at Chenobyl.

    • Chad Wells
      Chad Wells 7 months ago

      Reactors can be designed to be walk away safe if we want to, though. The need for active cooling measures isn’t an inherent feature of nuclear power technology.

    • Stu Jones
      Stu Jones 7 months ago

      Nicely explained..thankyou

  • Alan Brannick
    Alan Brannick 2 years ago +15

    Brilliant animation, one of the most informative I have ever seen. Only thing I would like to understand is how the control rods were moved.

  • Some Random Guy
    Some Random Guy 11 months ago +4

    I was wondering where the graphite was (other than the bottom part of the control rods) for it to be such an issue, now I know. Thank you.

  • Radim Gála
    Radim Gála 2 years ago +1

    Outstanding 3D models and animations! Excellent work!

  • Conny Komen
    Conny Komen Year ago +1

    Very nice and clear visual presentation of the plant, the cores and their possitions! I did not realize reactor 3 was just in the next building...

  • 1jeffr
    1jeffr 2 years ago +57

    Absolutely amazing animations. I couldn't even imagine how much work went into that.

    • caucs ruined it.
      caucs ruined it. 2 years ago +2

      @Mike Bell very appreciated. Keep going

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  2 years ago +10

      1jeffr thanks, it’s good to know my effort is appreciated and can inform others.

  • Obama Prism
    Obama Prism Year ago +16

    Crazy to think people ACTUALLY had an inside look in Chernobyl. Including the Core.

  • K Jamison
    K Jamison Year ago +2

    Thank you. I remember the original news reports and followed every documentary on Chernobyl NPP. I’d say it was a morbid curiosity for me. As much as I have watched documentaries about what happened on that date, what happens in the months that followed and what is happening, decades later as a huge experiment in what might happen if a nuclear apocalypse occurred, I have no interest in ever visiting Pripyat or the site of the NPP. I prefer to stay at a safe distance.

  • Sky Valley
    Sky Valley 2 years ago +3

    beautiful model. the framerate jerking is a shame!! i'm building a model of a coal fired power station at the moment and your modeling work is amazing. respect

  • swain scheps
    swain scheps 2 years ago

    Excellent animations. Really helps visualize what happened. Only slight disagreement is on the value of the ‘permanent’ rolling doesn’t actually protect anyone; it was built strictly for public relations. It would have been just as safe to the “outside world” to leave the building alone.

  • Mirian Batista
    Mirian Batista 4 months ago +1

    Vídeo perfeito! Melhor explicação que já vi. Parabéns...

  • rockkitty100
    rockkitty100 Year ago +5

    Great work, thank you! The men and women of the USSR that worked to seal the reactor after the explosion were true hero's the Soviet Union abandoned.

    • Toni ***
      Toni *** Year ago

      Women didn’t work there

  • Preston Burton
    Preston Burton Year ago +2

    Thank you for posting! Wonderful graphics. This is not a critique -We see the heat exchangers, at the top left and right. We know this is boiling water reactor - Does water not get cooled, other than the boiling off (which removes significant heat) before being returned to the bottom cooling channels (and through the main cooling pumps? so they are almost at 100c as well? at least their turbines?) It would seem that when this was at full power, water would always remain at pretty much boiling temperature, using just the slight differential between boiling and non-boiling. I've always wondered that - as GE reactors operate very similarly, just with full containment.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago +1

      The channels and piping are pressurised so the boiling point is significantly higher than 100c.
      After the turbines the steam is cooled with lake water to condense it back to water and then fed back to the pumps.
      But high inlet water temperature to the reactor was an issue and may have been a contributor to the disaster.
      During the disaster multiple channels ruptured and the pressure drop instantly flashed the water in the reactor to steam. The loss of water further enhanced reactivity overwhelming the system and causing the explosion.
      For 20 years the control staff managed these systems sufficiently to maintain safe operation but not on 26 Apr 1986.

  • bleachiniac
    bleachiniac Year ago +1

    Glad that I found this video. Good explanation about the explosion and that reactor lid,i saw one of the videos and people said it's the reactor lid but i couldn't imagine what it' this video really helped me a lot.

  • Jesus Martin Carrillo Romano

    Thank you for the video. The 3D animations make it understandable. Have you done something like this about the 3Mile Island nuclear accident? Thanks,

  • nataliya kostrytsya

    Really cool video with good animations! I really wanted to see how all happened and this video helped a lot! Thanks!

  • Panther from Kaiju Paradise
    Panther from Kaiju Paradise 10 months ago +10

    "... And hopefully it will retain the title of worst nuclear disaster in history." The idea that there could be something worse is terryifing.

  • Thomas Frye
    Thomas Frye Year ago +1

    I find your video incredibly in gaging and informative and amazingly I actually learned some things in this little 8 minute video that I hadn't learned in videos that were over an hour

  • John Smith
    John Smith Year ago +4

    Well done comrade.
    I enjoyed the footage of the close up look of the sarcophagus. And the animation of the reactor lid

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      Thanks comradski. You will certainly enjoy the next more detailed contents. But perfection takes time ....

  • Turtlemaroon
    Turtlemaroon Year ago +1

    I join others with the praise on the animations. It is clear that lot of careful work was put into it. Kudos.
    I grew up in country that was formerly Czechoslovakia and I heard many stories from older people and my parents about just how inherently messed up the soviet style of leadership was. There is no doubt in my mind that it is the root cause of all the contributing factors of the catastrophe.

  • Stephen G
    Stephen G Year ago +9

    This was the best condensed break-down of this event that I personally have ever watched. Brilliant.

  • рамис басыров

    thank you, incredibly rewarding work. I would like to see more of this unique and amazingly high quality content only from you

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      Thanks 😊 My newest video on the AZ5 button and why it blew up Chernobyl is ready in a few weeks time.

  • cherry love
    cherry love 10 months ago +6

    those men called liquidators are truly real heroes of the world they knew they probably would die from radiation sickness but they did what they did anyway they put every ones health and maybe there lives globally before there own they in my opinion are the greatest heroes to ever live they earned that title everyone in the world should be thankful to them for there sacrifice how many people knowing they would probably die sacrifice themselves

  • Darkpaw TheWolf
    Darkpaw TheWolf 2 years ago +1

    This was a great video. Thanks for the visuals. I still find Chernobyl very fascinating.

  • Valerij A. Legasov
    Valerij A. Legasov 2 years ago

    Thank you for this amazing video, great job! It is not hard to guess, Valerij Aleksejevic is my "teacher" and daily inspiration! I was born in the former CzechoSlovakia in 1985, so I simply could not understand, what happened at the Chernobyl NPP in the USSR. The nuclear energy, hydrogene energy and other topics are my great interes. Yes, the fact is, I am blind and sometimes it is not easy to deal with that handicap, you can imagine. I know well, I can go forward and deal with my life troubles and right Valerij Aleksejevic gives me more inner strenth - and It works! "The chemistry, life and chemistry and life connected us!" All the best from the Czech republic!

    SIR KILLALOT 4 months ago +1

    Amazing video, never knew about the layout and interior of the Chernobyl reactor before this video, not as well as I do now. Thankyou 😊

  • Kyle Anderson
    Kyle Anderson 2 years ago +10

    This was absolutely beautiful; thank you for taking the time to visualize this for us.

  • Tomas Urlich
    Tomas Urlich Year ago +8

    3:05 "Western reactors may only be refueled during a reactor shutdown". This is true for most of them, but not for a class of reactors called CANDU which are refueled at full power

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      See my pinned comment with corrections...

    • David Kennedy
      David Kennedy Year ago +2

      Came here to say the same thing.. Good video, but a number of mistakes/missing info.

  • Mark D
    Mark D Year ago

    Concise and well presented with visual aids. I remember the disaster being reported in the media. It was difficult to appreciate the scale of the disaster in the immediate aftermath. Different times, before the internet, before the collapse of the iron curtain.

  • Anhedonian Epiphany
    Anhedonian Epiphany 2 years ago +1

    Visually impressive work, and, apart from a few slight technical inaccuracies in the wording, a great effort overall!
    Also, just a simple English correction:
    [5:29] "The cleanup activities at Chernobyl was bravely done by ..." [ _'was'_ should be _'were'_ ]

    TARAS YATSIV Year ago +4

    Thank you for nice material and animation!
    However, being Ukrainian, I should admit that nowadays we revise this event. The 'disaster scale' turned Chornobyl in to 'black mark' of Ukraine. Being ahead of Soviet Scientific and Industrial Power it imediatelly lost positions in World Politics and Ukrainians were pushed back from Atomic Era to Industrial losing their jobs after Chernobyl, SU collapse and Independance. The last, feed by national state creation mania, keeps our country stucked for 27 years already. Only in 2014 when the war knocked from the North, Ukrainians started to understand that fighting for a language they lost all Nuclear Science, our NPPs are not producing power or stopped as Chernobyl. And this is huge hazard to our independance. There is one more secret in Chornobyl disaster. The common is the fact that NPPs were created to produce electricity. And this is false. Yes, the first research reactors in Russia were warming and connecting turbine was simple solution to drop the temperature down. The main purpose of reactors was production of new materials using irradiation!!!This 'feature' of the reactors nobody knows about, however this branch in Netherlands keeps alive all radio pharmaceutical industry!!!So, there is group of ukrainians who think - what would happen if we revise Chornobyl. Our people gave their lives to keep the rest of world clean and safe. We are the second nation on the Earth touched closely with this type of disasters after people in Japan. We know how to go nuclear and rise the technology. For more than 30 years Ukrainian engineers were improving radiation detection and measurement solutions using the best available area for this and today we Export this technology Worldwide. Specially to EU. We know how to keep safety now and we need to restructurise our nuclear industry in to irradiation materials production. It is time for private companies to step in and keep this technological achievement alive.

    • Berko
      Berko Year ago +1

      @Mike Bell
      The Chernobyl accident opened people's eyes to the true face of the communist system. And served as a catalyst for the collapse of the Soviet Union.
      Regarding the success in measuring radiation levels: my university friend in 1986 designed unique measuring instruments. But in the USSR, the inventor could not apply for a patent. An Italian company stole his ideas and constructed an exact replica of his device. repeating even the constructive errors of the first version of the device, which the author corrected in the second version.

    • Berko
      Berko Year ago +1

      thanks for your attention to my post.
      I was not a former TV presenter, I worked an engineer at video-mobiles and electronic news gathering. My univercity friend worked (since September 1986) at Chernobyl NPP (as a constructor of radiatson measuring devices). So I had a lot of information regarding to radiactivity levels in Kyiv and around Kyiv; about tremendous lies of the Soviet media and communist leaders.
      Each Soviet nuclear power plant experienced up to 20 pre-emergency and emergency situations annually, but this was hushed up in the media.
      We called the Soviet Union with its atomic energy and nuclear weapons "Monkey with a grenade".

    • m4nGo
      m4nGo Year ago +1

      @Berko I google translated that to this:
      Hello, Taras! I am from Kyiv, a former TV presenter. My colleagues went to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to film. It cost them health, and to some even life. I suggest to get acquainted with this site which in due time was created by engineers of the NPP (not only Chernobyl). There you will find explanations (experts) about the state of Soviet nuclear energy. And the memories of those who worked directly on the 4th power unit. Http:// I have some technical English, but to be an interpreter on the Chernobyl issue is not mine. You may want to share some information from this site with the English-speaking public.

    • Berko
      Berko Year ago

      Taras Yatsiv
      Вітаю, Тарасе!
      Я киянин, колишній телевізіонщик. Мої колеги їздили на ЧАЕС фільмувати. Це вартувало їм здоров'я, а декому й життя.
      Пропоную ознайомитися з цим сайтом, який свого часу створили самі же інженери АЕС (не лише Чорнобильської). Там знайдете пояснення (фахівців) стосовно стану совєтської атомної енергетики. І спогади тих хто безпосередньо працював на 4-му енергоблоці.
      Я до певної міри володію технічним інглішем, але бути тлумачем щодо чорнобильської теми - це не моє. Можливо Ви захочете поділитися з англомовною публікою деякою інформацією з цього сайту.

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      Thanks for the comment. One has to wonder how different Ukraine would have been today had say the carbon copy plant at Kursk in Russia blown up and not Chernobyl. This has been ball and chain to Ukraine for the past 30 years.
      I can appreciate that Ukraine is a world leader in radiation level metering. Here is a fascinating map which compares current radiation levels at Chernobyl and Fukushima
      Chernobyl ->
      Fukushima ->

  • Jim Frazier
    Jim Frazier 2 years ago

    As a former US Navy Nuclear operator, I was shown a then-classified video of what happened there, and I've been fascinated with the Chernobyl disaster ever since. This video does a credible job of explaining the fundamental design flaw of the RBMK (Russian Bomb Making Kit, as we used to joke) reactor, without going so far into the weeds that it completely loses anyone who has never been trained in reactor kinetics. Don't judge the entire industry by this one mistake, because several operators tried to stop this catastrophe before it unfolded, but were overruled for political purposes. They would've been listened to here, and are even listened to in the former Soviet republics, because of how terrifying Chernobyl really was. Fukushima was also a horrifying event, but I think people tend to lose sight of the fact that the operators did everything humanly possible, and it was caused by an earthquake/tsunami that killed tens of thousands in addition to wrecking a nuclear power plant.

  • Gamer_Norway
    Gamer_Norway Year ago +3

    Amazing!! Lovely 3D and well explained 👍🏼👍🏼

  • iyxec
    iyxec Month ago +6

    Very painful to watch any documentaries on Chernobyl disaster, the sacrifice made by the heroic men who lost their lives, friends and families in dealing with the aftermath to save the rest of us.
    I say to all those lost their lives due to the disaster, Rest in Peace.

  • Ohm Omair أم عمير
    Ohm Omair أم عمير 2 years ago +1

    Thank you for this brief and informative video. Just what I was looking for.

  • Justin Franks
    Justin Franks 2 months ago +5

    A positive void coefficient isn't about the temperature of the fuel. The RBMK reactors have a negative temperature coefficient, which means reactivity _does_ drop as temperature rises. A positive void coefficient refers to reactivity increasing if the coolant water boils and forms voids of steam.

    • Duftstab Kerze
      Duftstab Kerze Month ago

      Many thanks. I asked myself all the time where the term void comes from.

  • Patricia Schuster
    Patricia Schuster Month ago +6

    One of my cancer doctors 7 years ago is a Russian doctor who wanted to come to America, but couldn't come till she worked on so many cancer patients from Chernobyl. She isvin process of being re-register as a physician in America. She knows her stuff.

  • Miloš Kilibarda
    Miloš Kilibarda Year ago +1

    Amazing Video. I Really loved the Animation and the way you explained the workings of the reactor. Top job👍

  • E-Team
    E-Team Year ago

    After reading a lot of information about RBMK-1000 and watching videos including interviews with Diatlov in Russian, I came to the conclusion that the staff was not to blame for this catastrophe because the reactor's operating instructions at that time did not forbid them to bring the reactor to unstable conditions, which were very dangerous for this type of reactor. In addition, the construction of the reactor is not safe and has many shortcomings, but the Soviet leadership could not admit at that time that they were wrong and unable to design a safe nuclear reactor and preferred to blame the staff that was in that evening at work.
    PS: I do not agree with the statement you said about Diatlov's knowledge regarding the field of nuclear reactor, in Russian you can find more information and reports about all the actions that took place that night at Chernobyl and which unfortunately in English are somehow more obscure and omitted

    • Mike Bell
      Mike Bell  Year ago

      E-Team I actually agree with your assessment of the staff being not to blame. Dyatlov would not have allowed this to happen had he been aware the AZ5 / control rod graphite displacer design error. But Dyatlov seems to have disregarded or not properly understood the physics around the positive void co-efficient and zenon poisoning. But who am I to know anyway 🤣

  • Claudio Almeida
    Claudio Almeida 2 years ago

    Very good video. The correction about "refueling on line" of Candu and UK reactors was necessary and was done. But , lie Chrnobyl, also UK AGRs do not have a containment in the same sense as PWRs and BWRs.

  • Guilherme AdC
    Guilherme AdC 2 years ago +1

    Laudable work, clear and very well executed. Kudos!

  • MJ Szczepankiewicz

    That documentary footage of the disaster and people living there was heart mooving. They did job done. I also find animation and real life video of the block of the reactor putted together here outstanding. I remember time of mooving the new sarcophagus over the top of the core. The most important thing about that event i remember was this international cooperation. My personal opinion about statement that one of the causes of the catastrophy was soviet culture erosion is that was very accurate.

  • Chris Parkes
    Chris Parkes 2 years ago

    It’s worth noting that the inherent dangers of the RMBK reactors were unknown to power station staff; the highly secretive culture of the USSR meant that for example the risks involved with the boron tips was not shared at even management level.

  • Miłosz Frejnik
    Miłosz Frejnik 2 years ago +3

    Mike, that is one hell of the great documental/scientific analysis. I've watched plenty of materials from atomic disasters and this one is absolutely well aligned with the facts, without any additional drama or misleading additions. Thank You.

  • Coda Alive
    Coda Alive Year ago +2

    There were deflagrations and explosions inside reactors in Fukushima (beside Three Mile Island, SL-1, etc.), despite supposedly having "better design" than Chernobyl. If Fukushima reactor 4 wasn't empty because of maintenance, consequences would be worse than in Chernobyl. Fukushima in on scale 7, as is Chernobyl. It was known before such accident will happen in GE reactor...