Computer Scientist Explains One Concept in 5 Levels of Difficulty | WIRED

  • Published on Jan 17, 2022
  • Computer scientist Amit Sahai, PhD, is asked to explain the concept of zero-knowledge proofs to 5 different people; a child, a teen, a college student, a grad student, and an expert. Using a variety of techniques, Amit breaks down what zero-knowledge proofs are and why it's so exciting in the world of cryptography.
    Amit Sahai, PhD, is a professor of computer science at UCLA Samueli School of Engineering.
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    Computer Scientist Explains One Concept in 5 Levels of Difficulty | WIRED
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 4 174

  • Geography Now
    Geography Now 3 months ago +9474

    All I needed was the Child level and was like "Okay GOT IT. Thank you"

    • InternetGuy
      InternetGuy 25 days ago

      Everything should be taught that way 😆

    • Julian Bergheim
      Julian Bergheim Month ago

      @Bittmann Finance a practical example would be we have a trusted kyc system that has your daughters ID and if a random guy at store or club needs age verification the system says yes or no without giving name, birthday adresse etc.

    • Jeffrey Johnson
      Jeffrey Johnson Month ago +1


    • T M
      T M Month ago

      That’s the problem of Gen Z… low attention span… jack of all trade…master of none …

    • Michael O'Connell
      Michael O'Connell Month ago

      @Random Guy Everyone's oblivious to things they don't know about.

  • David T
    David T 3 months ago +3230

    The teen version was simpler than the child one honestly. Also that ten year old is very smart.

    • Steve Zelaznik
      Steve Zelaznik Month ago +1

      @JustKeith He was simulating a type of identity verification in cryptography. I send you a random string, encrypted with your public key. You decrypt the string with your private key and then send the random string back to me. That process is how I can verify that I'm speaking to you, but you never have to tell me your private key.

    • gar keinen
      gar keinen Month ago

      I did not understand the teen version. I still need to meet up to agree on some "mathmatical lock" to be sure it was that person.

    • Ya Boi Rogers
      Ya Boi Rogers Month ago

      often, when explaining things, easier explanations come in steps. He explained it in a simple way to chelsea and the next time around he probably had an aha moment, so he used the safe.

    • Jesse
      Jesse Month ago +1

      I thought the child one was simpler, it might be just that he used very common words that we understand which made it click quicker in our head.

    • Curtis Steele
      Curtis Steele Month ago

      @Aisha seriously… even though we were children we underestimate them. But I have kids. Two completely different ones and on on the way. Watching them is a head trip cause it reminds you how smart they actually are…

  • Hyron Harrison
    Hyron Harrison 3 months ago +806

    Timestamps because I know you got sheit to do:
    0:35 - Child
    3:24 - Teen
    6:08 - College Student
    11:55 - Grad Student
    17:05 - Expert
    Upvote for others to see.

  • Dita
    Dita 3 months ago +161

    Wow... I love how he explains things and especially his "aura"--calming and not judgmental. Imho, pure of the intention to "I want to help you to understand this". Honestly, it has been a very long time I haven't feel this feeling. Very soothing...

    • Ali Rizvi-Santiago
      Ali Rizvi-Santiago Month ago +1

      100%. All teachers should be like this. Education should have no bias and be pure as to allow the student to learn the subjects they need for their daily life. It's a shame in the US that academic policy and the related debates seems so contrary to this. Things like standardized testing seem to be being misused and opaque to the a simple thing such as getting your test results back so that you can benchmark yourself on whether you're actually learning or your teacher is actually teaching could help. McGraw Hill's ALEKS program (digital) that they're using now doesn't even let you flip back to previous chapters, or re-take tests that you screwed up order to allow you to re-learn something or even test yourself.

  • Luna M
    Luna M 2 months ago +24

    I LOVE the expression of pride and admiration and excitement on the interviewer's face when talking with the grad student. He's soooo happy that someone up-and-coming really gets it. ^___^ I don't get it completely, but I'm glad there are people out there who love to learn and love when others learn, too. Fantastic.

  • thor • _
    thor • _ 3 months ago +12889

    My dad explained me this a long time ago.. he would tell me how hard his path to school was without revealing anything

    • Mozisi
      Mozisi 11 days ago

      😂😂😂yu a genius

      BILL SHELTON Month ago

      @A TheXvid Commenter only half way.

    • Yi Ding
      Yi Ding Month ago


    • Surya Narayanan Venkat Narayanan mm18b036
    • Sam S
      Sam S Month ago

      My dad explained a zero proof, he said he was going to the store for cigarettes and then a credit card statement a month later came in while he was gone. He’s prolly still at the store.

  • Muhammed Shareef
    Muhammed Shareef 3 months ago +15

    I wish all my teachers taught me things like how this guy taught the child. Simple and effective.

  • Asmita Ghorai
    Asmita Ghorai 3 months ago +51

    How the heck does Wired always manage to get the best professionals out there to sharpen our rusty brains? Even the thing they have with the celebrities, the Autocomplete series is genuis-level!

  • kummer45
    kummer45 3 months ago +21

    This IS NOT about computer science.
    This is NOT about Zero knowledge proofs
    This is NOT about an outstanding teacher explaining a hard theoretical and practical problem in computer science.
    THIS IS about our humane behavior of trust and distrust and how we could reach a consensus. This video is one of the most beautiful explanations about human behavior and sociology I ever saw. I'm a mathematician. I haven't heard of something like this.
    The institution, individual or team of people who produced this and wrote the script of such video is the hero we need today. Thank you so much.

  • Engineer02
    Engineer02 3 months ago +52

    The analogy of the safe basically explains RSA encryption.
    It's very easy to stick paper into the slit (encrypt your message using the public key), but without knowing the combination of the safe (the two prime numbers the key is composed of) it's impossible to get your message back.
    If someone can correctly decrypt a message you encrypted with a public key, they proved to know the two prime numbers.

    • Joy Kim
      Joy Kim 17 days ago

      Basically cryptography is mostly about zkp

    • El Zed
      El Zed 3 months ago +2

      Yup thanks for this. I've known RSA but did not yet (am at teen lvl in the vid rn) connect it with the term zero knowledge proof

  • Cool Piano Shorts
    Cool Piano Shorts 4 months ago +8423

    That dialogue with the child was so deep, I'm impressed that she gets it and by how well explained it was.

    • EE Ved
      EE Ved 7 days ago

      @Albert Batfinder this is where a zero knowledge proof would come in I guess

    • thisperson25
      thisperson25 3 months ago +1

      @YouKnowArts then your previous comment "well she is asian" isn't true, because you're implying the girl is smart enough to understand it in a couple of minutes when in reality that isn't the case. The explanation probably took much longer or both the persons were reading off of a script.

    • kota
      kota 3 months ago

      @Adithyan Vinod Suh isnt a chinese surname im pretty sure, she may be central asian. dont assume lol

    • Sagolel4797
      Sagolel4797 3 months ago

      @TheOzumat the college student had 0 clue what he was talking about kekw

    • BruceLee'sDJstudio
      BruceLee'sDJstudio 3 months ago

      @bob berry not all kids are smart, asian kids are pure genius

  • Michael Grius
    Michael Grius 3 months ago +19

    It amazes me how passionate the conversation got when the grad student got on...I've not heard a real and genuine math conversation in a while...appreciate y'all

  • Lilian W.
    Lilian W. 3 months ago +89

    Level 1 Child 00:38
    Level 2 Teen 03:28
    Level 3 College Student 06:12
    Level 4 Grad Student 11:56
    Level 5 Expert 17:06

  • Hetzerogeneous
    Hetzerogeneous 2 months ago +7

    As a final year computer science student, I still barely understand “Np complete” but this explanation is super useful! It’s like abstraction.

  • thoyo
    thoyo 19 hours ago

    Interesting that the higher we go after the undergrad, the less technical the conversations got and they were more about ideas and practical uses and implementation.

  • Kazi Sumaiya
    Kazi Sumaiya 4 months ago +14927

    This guy was so good at explaining this topic. I bet he's a good teacher. Also this whole video series is genius because you are introducing complex topics to the masses in a way that they can understand and digest. Love this, keep it up Wired!

    • Nayan
      Nayan 3 months ago

      @Harsh Singh ( 🇮🇳 ) we should feel bad coz we have immense potential but our system is filled with corruption and lack of funding that people have to go to foreign countries for education and jobs.

    • Mohd Nazarudin
      Mohd Nazarudin 3 months ago

      @Nothing Err quite a tremendous number of university lecturers are bad teachers and bad at explaining concepts to students

    • Nothing
      Nothing 3 months ago

      @yul liauh i didn't understand a single word

    • yul lia
      yul lia 3 months ago

      @Nothing ooko

  • Amit Bhaya
    Amit Bhaya 3 months ago +43

    My father was born in 1920 in Muzzafarpur, Bihar, the youngest of five siblings, homeschooled by my grandfather and doted on by the whole family. Little wonder then, that he was something like a child prodigy, good at everything he tried his hand at. He could read both Bengali and English when he was about five and one day, when his maternal uncle was visiting, his father decided to show off his youngest son's English reading skills by taking the day's newspaper and having him read a headline to his Boromama (oldest maternal uncle). His Boromama was suspicious of the display and thought that his brother-in-law might have made the kid memorize the headline. So he asked the kid to get a sheet of paper and a pair of scissors, opened the newspaper to a middle page, cut a little hole in the sheet of paper, which he placed on a headline, so that the boy could only see a letter at a time and then asked him to read. Which he did, to everyone's surprise. A nice variation on the theme of zero knowledge proofs, that occurred nearly ninety years ago!

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous 2 months ago +11

      Hmm... Good story! Now it would be very impressive if you can prove this happened with zero knowledge proof. Ie No video, no photographs etc. Just kidding. NIce one

  • Alex Legge
    Alex Legge 3 months ago +10

    It's really interesting to see how the tone of the interaction changes gradually with each level, and perhaps more noticeable in this clip than other '5 levels of difficulty' clips I've seen. With the child, he's presenting information to her; later on he's sharing ideas with the expert. And yet in none of the 5 levels is his genuine passion for zero-knowledge proofs lost. Impressive.

  • Harsha
    Harsha 2 months ago +3

    I love these series, it's clearly an application of the Feynman technique to understand a particular concept. Looking forward to more interesting ones.

  • Keith Barnes
    Keith Barnes 3 months ago +37

    The teen explanation was the one that was the light bulb moment for me. Proving that you knew the combination by revealing the message that you could only know if you knew the combination.

    • David O
      David O 3 months ago +6

      @Omicron that’s not analogous, you can’t directly compare concepts within programming to real life

    • David O
      David O 3 months ago +7

      @Omicron you’ve completely missed the point lmfao

  • DaGleese
    DaGleese 4 months ago +2749

    I'm just blown away with the example he gave to the child with the puffin. So simple, yet it really just explains everything.

    • Yennefer
      Yennefer 3 months ago

      fr u wouldve never ever been able to come up with that type of analogy

    • Reuben Manzo
      Reuben Manzo 3 months ago +1

      I don't even know what a puffin is, so I would have no clue what I'm looking for.

    • Frank Furter
      Frank Furter 3 months ago +1

      @A TheXvid Commenter Nope. If the hole is covered there may already be a photo with a puffin behind the board and he places the penguin photo behind it. If he shows here nothing behind the board and let’s her watch him affix the penguin photo then he’s revealed information about where the puffin is located in the penguin photo which defeats the premise of the exercise.

    • Lukasz Patryn
      Lukasz Patryn 3 months ago

      @BruceLee'sDJstudio a bird similar in many ways

  • LINK
    LINK 3 months ago +8

    I always watch these videos for the part where they explain to other experts. It's confusing, yet so fascinating.

  • Pledge Chill
    Pledge Chill Month ago +1

    I love how happy he looks when he speaks with the PhD candidate and expert.

  • Jihoon Lim
    Jihoon Lim 2 months ago +4

    This video is not only informative, but also inspiring. Thank you Wired and professor Sahai.

  • eureka1007
    eureka1007 2 months ago +2

    Amit makes learning so much more fun and interesting, even when you don't fully understand all that was discussed

  • Samuel Atienzo
    Samuel Atienzo 3 months ago +1902

    The level 1 proof was the hardest since he had to take something complex and make it simple. A sign of a great teacher 👍

    • Dimitar Bogdanov
      Dimitar Bogdanov 2 months ago

      @TheAngryDanishViking Precisely! Exact quote in case someone doesn't know it:
      > If you can't explain it to a 6-year-old, you don't understand it yourself

    • TheAngryDanishViking
      TheAngryDanishViking 2 months ago +2

      I think Einstein said something about if you cannot explain a concept in a way that everyone can understand, then you do not know the concept well enough yourself, yet.

    • Crazy Eyes
      Crazy Eyes 2 months ago +1

      @̶N̶o̶ It's not insulting at all. Almost every algorithm and concept in CS can be broken down at a very high level and explained in abstract terms like this. Many professionals only understand it at the implementation level and never understand it at the conceptual level like the 10 year old girl in this video did. In other words, people just aping what they know works without understanding why or how it works.

    • Dimitar Bogdanov
      Dimitar Bogdanov 2 months ago +1

      @fRAES Crypyo takes skill in knowing when to draw the line. Not even going to talk about time, that's obvious.
      And you're still off-topic about my original reply.

    • fRAES
      fRAES 2 months ago

      @Dimitar Bogdanov hahahahaha "skill and time" hahaha yeah, just as much skill as in a coin-toss. Grow up.

  • Bhuman Sharma
    Bhuman Sharma 2 months ago +3

    Kudos to the professor for such amazing explanations🙏🏻👍🏼

  • Ámbar
    Ámbar 3 months ago +1

    This kind of explanations are awesome, with 5 levels of complexity, I hope you guys at Wired keep doing this format with many many more topics.

  • Brian Ponce
    Brian Ponce 2 months ago

    I absolutely love this video series! I hope that, in the future, you get an economist to also do a 5 levels video

  • Luz Herrera🏳️‍⚧️

    Smart people understand each other, but only geniuses can make children understand complex scientific concepts like if they were simple fables.

  • Dindonmasker V
    Dindonmasker V 3 months ago

    i love this series so much! thank you to everyone playing a part in it!

  • M H
    M H 2 months ago +11

    4:20 I guess you could compare this to pgp and passwords, where the verifier uses your public key to encrypt a one time token, and you then use your private key to decrypt that and send back the phrase, and for more security, you could encrypt your response using their public key.
    this is easier than inthought it would be.... it helos a lot when something is emplained at difrent knowlege levels using different examples.

  • Mike Chism
    Mike Chism 3 days ago

    I really love this idea for a video! You can do this with so many topics. As a photographer and videographer, I would find it so interesting to see someone use this to explain depth of field with camera lenses. Like what an f/1.4 would do compared to f/9. You can use explains of focus and how the focus depth changes depending on the f/stop. I have had to explain why it shoot a certain way or what makes lenses so special over others to the hobbits or someone looking to build out their gear. Sometimes you even have to talk to the person like they are a 10 year old kid. So I think that idea would be great for a future video

  • cyber_Rachel
    cyber_Rachel 3 months ago

    I really love this because, whilst I'm at the postgraduate level in my field, I haven't the faintest idea about computer science.
    I got as far as the teen level before I started to really have to put a lot more active effort into understanding the concept at hand. This is a perfect example of how science education works, and I love it!

  • Andrew Basilio
    Andrew Basilio 3 months ago +4483

    I love how epic it is when two PhDs dive so deep into a topic that only they really understand what they're talking about

    • Elden Ring
      Elden Ring Month ago

      my homour

    • orksca
      orksca 2 months ago

      @Shineder . pretty huge-

    • Athenz Minz
      Athenz Minz 2 months ago

      and the rest of us mere mortals sit on the sidelines in awe

    • Piper Kanari
      Piper Kanari 2 months ago

      yes, this is the stage at which I started scrolling through the comments

    • zapl80
      zapl80 3 months ago +1

      They are just talking broadly about all sorts of aspects of the field without it being a really cohesive conversation, littered with buzzword tech and ideas.

  • Diedert Spijkerboer
    Diedert Spijkerboer 3 months ago +1

    I always like to see how far I get with understanding these explanations. This time, I understood part of the last one, but that's partly because I've done a good deal of maths at university.
    It sounds really fascinating and I would love to understand more about it.

  • ChiengBang
    ChiengBang 3 months ago +3

    I would love to see other concepts in Computer Science! This is such a great concept.

  • itskuv7
    itskuv7 3 months ago +2

    Teacher here, and wow, he did a great job at explaining zero knowledge proof!

  • John McLeod
    John McLeod 3 months ago +1

    Being able to explain a subject simply in a way that children understand is actually difficult and proves he knows the topic well.

  • starlight
    starlight 4 months ago +2841

    It’s so nice to see his past students talk about what a great professor he was. If only all educators had this much passion towards their subject matter and enjoyed imparting knowledge to others this much.

    • droid monkey
      droid monkey 3 months ago +1

      I hate to say it but a lot of professors lose it over time, especially if they get unlucky enough to teach topics that everyone needs to take as a some arbitrary prerequisite that colleges impose.
      When you're forced to teach a topic that no one in your class cares about, you get burnt out and stop caring.
      This professor happens to teach such a specialized topic that most, if not all his students are just as passionate about as he is - or in other words, it keeps his passion alive teaching it to people who actually care.

    • Firun
      Firun 3 months ago

      As far as I am aware the problem with professors and, by extension, lecturers is that they are often forced to hold classes in order to be able to do the research they want to do. That this does not generally make for a good classroom environment or efficient transfer of knowledge should be immediately obvious.

    • Gecko Zilla
      Gecko Zilla 3 months ago +1

      @InsignificancePersonified disagree

    • Gecko Zilla
      Gecko Zilla 3 months ago

      Ik it’s amazing

    • Dah Pluggg
      Dah Pluggg 4 months ago

      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………why is everyone talking about my videos 😹😹😹

  • JFx Sarmiento
    JFx Sarmiento 3 months ago +6

    Finally, level 5. I just want to congratulate both gentlemen and share the illusion and excitement of this developing zero-knowledge proof technology. With all my respect and best wishes to all!

  • Alicia
    Alicia 2 months ago

    He explains so well I as a high schooler understood even the expert level 😭. Also i looovveee these types of videos because i'm very curious and Always want to learn new things but don't have time to learn everything i want so just learning a tiny litle bit of knowledge or even just understanding a subject on some level is really fun!

  • Adotac
    Adotac 3 months ago +1

    A very fascinating topic! It's the first time I heard about it. I am still studying the CS degree and currently I have an idea trying to implement, involving nfts which makes the ownership more legit. Then to my surprise that my idea comes of like a Zero knowledge proof, this vid sparked my motivation more!

  • Konark Vinod
    Konark Vinod 2 months ago

    The College Student example is one of the most intuitive ways I’ve seen something be explained. Amazing professor, I wish he’d teach me.

  • Hoggar Krababbel
    Hoggar Krababbel 3 months ago +4566

    At first I thought Chelsea's analogy with the "magic trick" was wrong. Then I realized that the girl is smarter than I, because a "magic trick" in its entirety is something completely normal and understandable, but since the magician only lets you see what you're supposed to see, you receive proof that something is real without proof how it possibly could be real!

    • Jason Guo
      Jason Guo 18 days ago

      Except a proof does not rely on illusions.

    • Hoggar Krababbel
      Hoggar Krababbel 29 days ago +1

      @Chad M Thanks! ☺

    • Chad M
      Chad M 29 days ago +1

      No, you're smarter because I seriously doubt that she thought of it that way.

    • MightyCaucasian
      MightyCaucasian Month ago +1

      @Currently defused I thought the magic trick analogy was spot on by the little girl. The entire time it seemed clear she was very bright.

  • marcello42
    marcello42 3 months ago

    I guess a college CS student would learn problem complexity in the first term. Really love this series we need much more of this.

  • Maja
    Maja 3 months ago +2

    "Bringing people together who are mutual distrustful." Amazing words.

  • Capt Noen ✦ ⚓
    Capt Noen ✦ ⚓ 3 months ago

    I really loved the college student and grad student explanation since they were easier to understand for me. It's opened up a lot of questions I want to find answers for. Thanks for sharing!

  • Khoa Nguyễn Thắng Anh

    Honestly, I found the conversation between the two professors the most fascinating one, like they were talking about the same interest and it actually intrigued me

  • The Clever Fool
    The Clever Fool 4 months ago +2451

    Had the privilege of studying Automata Theory with him as my professor. Truly brilliant and very good at explaining and fostering discussion.

    • Dah Pluggg
      Dah Pluggg 4 months ago

      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………why is everyone talking about my videos 😹😹😹

    • Dah Pluggg
      Dah Pluggg 4 months ago

      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………why is everyone talking about my videos 😹😹😹

    • CJ Alcantara
      CJ Alcantara 4 months ago +2

      wow. I officially envy you 😂

    • lx
      lx 4 months ago +2

      I can honestly tell he's very passionate and extremely knowledgeable about many things. I have nothing but respect and admiration!

    • FL MO
      FL MO 4 months ago +9

      Dudeee what an honor! For that class my professor was awful :( hope I do well in compiler design lol

  • ultium labs
    ultium labs 3 months ago

    I'm impressed by this video, and the level conversation for each level seems to gradually incline and later decline again. the conversation between experts is like the level conversation with the child, looks like just talking simple random stuff. and the statement by the expert even shocked me: he even know this thing in 1986, I was even not born yet. awesome!!!

  • Ferrero Lounge
    Ferrero Lounge 3 months ago +2

    The task was "to explain the concept" . The teacher went one step ahead and asked a question in the end: "Now given this, what do you think zero-knowledge proof really is?" That moment when the student is on stage with the 'just acquired knowledge' ... priceless!

  • shreya love
    shreya love 3 months ago +2

    this is SOOO interesting! the example i thought of if i had to explain the zero-knowledge proof to someone is in terms of criminal law (which is so interesting btw): for example, say you know the guilty suspect in an investigation but you don't want to compromise your source - convincing the investigative team that you are of use is the zero knowledge proof.

  • Daniel Valadez
    Daniel Valadez Month ago

    I'm about to graduate with a degree in CS, and it's pretty cool being able to keep up with all these conversations. I knew this man was going to pull out the map when he started talking about NP-Complete problems lol

  • Jacob Zhang
    Jacob Zhang 4 months ago +2837

    I had Sahai for the CS theory course at UCLA and he was a great teacher. Perfect choice for this video! Go Professor Sahai!

    • majinbuu_79
      majinbuu_79 3 months ago +1

      @Sn0w Controller he's very weird

    • r a n d o m
      r a n d o m 3 months ago

      @transfo47 yeah lol

    • Dah Pluggg
      Dah Pluggg 4 months ago

      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………why is everyone talking about my videos 😹😹😹

    • transfo47
      transfo47 4 months ago +1

      @vienna Not really. Being stereotyped as a "model minority" has disastrous effects too.

    • Kumar Vikramaditya
      Kumar Vikramaditya 4 months ago

      @Sn0w Controller I am not a man

  • Curious Nomad
    Curious Nomad 3 months ago

    I love it! It's very good for privacy. However, being creative enough to find out ways to implement it could prove challenging.

  • UberTech
    UberTech 3 months ago +1

    Reminds me of doing QC testing. Just do a sample test on a pallet of what you are testing. If a certain percentage passes, then pass that whole stack and gamble the number of failures the customer receives.
    How to accurately gamble the result of random data points without having to test all of the data points.

  • Mattias Kemi
    Mattias Kemi 3 months ago +1

    I thouroughly enjoyed how this video is a zero-knowledge proof in itself. I realized at the 4th level that it turned more and more into people who had some idea of the concept being able to verify each other without talking directly about the concept but rather about the concepts applications. It occurred to me that I could write this post in the same manner, seeing if someone would prove to me that they understood it without explaining how, but perhaps that wouldnt generate very many replies :D Did anyone else think of this "6th level" of the video?

  • AdventureWithHai
    AdventureWithHai 3 months ago

    I grasp this concept when my parent told me to study and you'll great, and their proof were constant comparison to my cousins. Brilliant!

  • BestSoldier7
    BestSoldier7 3 months ago +1213

    He's reeeeeally passionate about mathematics, his eyes shines like stars. Love that

    • Jenthefwen
      Jenthefwen 2 months ago

      @R 😂

    • PiFre
      PiFre 3 months ago +8

      @P B Maybe the topic they were talking about is associated with Mathematic algorithms?

    • P B
      P B 3 months ago

      Where is mathematics in this?

    • vash the stampede
      vash the stampede 3 months ago


    • R
      R 3 months ago +26

      @bussy cat if you're an engineering student you'll know that all of the engineering tutorial/problem solving videos on TheXvid are created by Indians. We owe them haha

  • Berni Harris
    Berni Harris 2 months ago

    What an incredible teacher!

  • greennin
    greennin 2 months ago

    It's interesting how at the end he revealed he was working on quantum resistance. That's going to be very important. I bet the quantum computers will be used to create AIs that create their own AIs to break quantum resistance.

  • JFx Sarmiento
    JFx Sarmiento 3 months ago

    Also, in level 3, the colouring countries of that map have different numbers of “frontier lines” which means that the probabilities to find out the right combination of colour is reduced drastically, as there are only 3 colours and 2, 3 and 4 frontier country lines!
    All the best!

  • Flizbath
    Flizbath 2 months ago

    Anyone else appreciate Dr. Sahai's clear, calm and gentle manner of speaking? I would love to have had an instructor like this irl. Also, excellent use of the penguin-puffin poster and the safe with the 10 and 13 year olds. Just wonderful!

  • QuEsTiOn_MARK? _
    QuEsTiOn_MARK? _ 4 months ago +1662

    But honestly that Grad student's research on providing statistics/Insight but doing so without disclosing any individual user's data is pretty fascinating and could have potentially huge impact on user data privacy and security. I really hope he's able to make some amazing breakthrough on his research.

    • RyuThe4th
      RyuThe4th 3 months ago +1

      @Eli Jaffe GOAT

    • kcdancevid
      kcdancevid 3 months ago

      Those data scrapers don't want anonymous. They want to ID you and keep track of you. Actually, the ID can indeed just be a track, without a name, either way they surveil your and based on that data, target you.

    • Vinny
      Vinny 3 months ago

      @Nate • 18 years ago now meta

    • Michael
      Michael 3 months ago

      @K1ZMT "Another example is scanning DMs and discovering factual information" That is personal data. You are taking people's personal messages, scanning them for info to sell that info to marketing teams so they can spam people with ads.
      This is exactly what people don't want and don't like.

  • polarisedelectrons
    polarisedelectrons 3 months ago

    Chelsea's own words describing zero knowledge proof just helped me, an adult, understand the concept much more clearly. Thank you, Chelsea.

  • Manuel
    Manuel 3 months ago

    It's incredible how the little girl is capable of giving a definition of such a complex idea after some minutes. This guys is an excellent teacher.

  • Liam
    Liam 2 months ago

    The implications for free and fair-and provable-elections blew my mind. Absolutely incredible. 11:27

  • Aditya Thakur
    Aditya Thakur 3 months ago +17

    zero knowledge proofs are just a scientific form of "trust me bro"

  • Joseph N
    Joseph N 3 months ago +1543

    What an amazing role model this man is. Teaching is actually only a small part of his contribution to society. Truly an honorable intellectual.

    • Vryster Frozenhell
      Vryster Frozenhell 2 months ago

      Well that's an obligation of a lecturer right? And that's pretty much normal in our society

    • Maritess Hoy
      Maritess Hoy 3 months ago

      @Ngã - Not sure what you mean by “crypto shill,” didn’t see that, but the topic relates to cryptography, so…

    • Joseph N
      Joseph N 3 months ago +10

      @HIT BLAZ you really do not know how to market yourself. You had the opportunity to say something funny and get people to watch your videos. But instead you are rude and repelling. You will never succeed this way. Be a better person please.

    • HIT BLAZ
      HIT BLAZ 3 months ago

      @Steel Steez 🎃 you're no one so, you don't have to care

  • Spencer Snitil
    Spencer Snitil 3 months ago +1

    The glimmer in his eyes when the child described why math was her favorite subject is so wholesome.

  • Barfieman362
    Barfieman362 2 months ago

    This guy is an awesome teacher. Must be awesome talking to him one on one

  • NPC I Am NPC Man
    NPC I Am NPC Man 3 months ago +2

    This sounds like a sick concept with powerful applications. Excited to see how this develops - particularly in the election space!

  • Marcus Jasso
    Marcus Jasso 3 months ago

    Mr. Sahai has an amazing and soothing voice. He would be a darn good audio book reader.

  • Meow Kat
    Meow Kat 4 months ago +1367

    This video just proved that my intelligence is at an 8 year old level

    • Nishka skype44
      Nishka skype44 Month ago

      This video proved I'm good for nothing

    • Cybεrpunk
      Cybεrpunk 3 months ago

      @Ruth Trejo Nah, that's not it. I have a masters in computer information systems. My undergrad was engineering. I've taken many advanced CS courses. Still didn't get it.

    • Ruth Trejo
      Ruth Trejo 3 months ago +1

      Its the topic. If you don’t know much about CS topics, of course this will seem foreign. You don’t have a low intelligence. They’re simply talking about algorithms or proofs specifically used in CS. NP-Complete is also difficult to understand with no basis. So don’t feel bad love

    • Braɪən
      Braɪən 3 months ago

      @Cybεrpunk Ironically, I didn't understand the first two levels; nevertheless, I understood the college level.


    All problems have a simple solution around us. Only Just need to focus.
    Thank you Amit bhai for all information

  • eileen brennan
    eileen brennan 3 months ago

    Brilliant, thank you for sharing this!!! It was a huge save!

  • Velin
    Velin 2 months ago +3

    That dialogue with the child was so deep, I'm impressed that she gets it and by how well explained it was.

  • Y K
    Y K 3 months ago

    very clear explanation. Thank you!

  • Ajwadd Anwarr
    Ajwadd Anwarr 3 months ago +1078

    I am impressed by Chelsea, this topic is really hard, but she managed to come up with a summary for what she learned in such a short time!

    • thisperson25
      thisperson25 3 months ago +19

      almost because she's reading off of a script!

    • Luis M Hernandez
      Luis M Hernandez 3 months ago +2

      Very smart girl indeed

    • Watwat
      Watwat 3 months ago +32

      @TreyOFive yea bc its scripted

    • TreyOFive
      TreyOFive 3 months ago +10


  • PhaLanX
    PhaLanX 3 months ago +3

    Interesting video. When I saw the proof that the computer scientist knows the combination to the safe, I felt that it was really only proof that he knew how to open the safe, not necessarily using the combination. For e.g. he might be aware of some secret lever in the safe. Am I missing something?

    • Crypto Casey
      Crypto Casey 3 months ago

      Making it out at a young age is quite difficult. I started a side hustle at 17, saved up and made some good investments. l'm 28,live on my own and having a good life for myself. Big ups to you and everyone out there trying

  • Ling Ho
    Ling Ho 2 months ago

    bringing people together through zero knowledge proof sounds pretty amazing. sounds like the exact opposite of cyberattacks that separate people and make them distrustful instead. so yeah, let's flip that whole thing on its head xD

  • anurag parcha
    anurag parcha 3 months ago

    The way the professor's face lit up, when the kid said her favorite subject was math. Love it :')

  • Alex Me
    Alex Me 3 months ago

    the lesson i take away is that many things should more often be explained on a child's level rather than always assuming the listener is an expert already.
    Could be applied in politics, climate change, covid or even tax/law/financial matters

  • Prateek Panwar
    Prateek Panwar 4 months ago +1544

    Man this teacher can teach anything. He's amazing.
    Req: Wired, Can you make another video asking him some teaching tips / "How to teach anything to anyone in 5 different levels" like something? Would be super useful.

    • Eli Zenenmi
      Eli Zenenmi 3 months ago

      Omg yesss that would be amazing!

    • Shlok Dey
      Shlok Dey 3 months ago

      i agree

    • Zmiana Pogody
      Zmiana Pogody 3 months ago +2

      @C. G. Andragogy? Great word! 💯

    • C. G.
      C. G. 3 months ago +5

      There's some discipline called Pedagogy, it's what teachers study to teach others, specifically kids and teenagers. Andragogy is used for adults. Downbreaking should be a mandatory subject for any aspiring teacher/professor. This man excels at it. 😁👍🏻👍🏻👍🏻

    • toadalmoji
      toadalmoji 3 months ago +2

      @Otaku Hunter agreed, i feel the same way, I was just saying being a great instructor for one discipline doesn't magically unlock that ability in all others without any effort

  • Freehaven - Jun Prince

    He handled the Child interview like a pro. Might have avoided words like "Verifier" at the beginning with a 10 year old, but after that he nailed it.

  • Aniket Shirke
    Aniket Shirke Month ago

    This whole video was like a zero-knowledge proof to me. He proved to me that zero-knowledge proofs are awesome, without making me understand exactly what they are

  • Cheerful NE
    Cheerful NE Month ago

    Yes, you can take the prover and split it into many parallel parts for computation and/or data analysis, but it will be as effective as the algorithm of how to find the exact point of what the prover wants to show. More split = More time comsumed, at the current computation speed, its a hassle to achieve the given result, but it is doable.

  • Leoni Lubbinge
    Leoni Lubbinge 3 months ago

    Zero knowledge proof finally makes sense to me now that I know it is a form of encryption. Excellent explanation and love the conversations with the grad students , it raises so many interesting ideas and questions.

    • Apparatus 101
      Apparatus 101 Month ago

      This concept is too futuristic.

    • Apparatus 101
      Apparatus 101 Month ago

      Encryption uses data which ≠ a zero data space.
      Zero data = zero data; we call this logic.
      Without logic there is no formation.
      Which then nothing can be used as a result of incompleteness.

  • Saketh Kasibatla
    Saketh Kasibatla 4 months ago +822

    Prof. Sahai’s classes at UCLA were amazing! I remember walking out of his lecture on Gödels incompleteness theorem with my mind blown

    • woojoo666
      woojoo666 Month ago +1

      @Shubhang Mishra Veritasium has a video on Godel's incompleteness theorem that can be understood by a high schooler (I think the video is called something like "Hole in the Foundation of Mathematics")

    • Belleza Vudd
      Belleza Vudd 3 months ago +2

      Godels incompleteness theorem will blow the mind of any student scientist who pays attention to it.

    • Francesco Longobardi
      Francesco Longobardi 4 months ago +3

      @Shubhang Mishra Yeah, they do. In my case it was in a logic class

    • Ko- Jap
      Ko- Jap 4 months ago +3

      @Shubhang Mishra CS is heavy math that’s why

    • Hawks
      Hawks 4 months ago +9

      @Shubhang Mishra yep. It came up in my undergrad class as well, but I was in a math course that wasn't required for my cs degree. I think it was predicate logic?

  • Daniel Adi Nugroho
    Daniel Adi Nugroho 3 months ago +1

    I got excited when he explained it to a child, I felt enlightened, then I thought that the teenager-level explanation is quite enriching, but once it got to the college student, I start to feel bored. I was almost asleep when the two PhDs are talking to each other. I think this puts me in my place.

  • irdina hanisa razali
    irdina hanisa razali 2 months ago

    i love how his smile gets wider and wider as the opposite person has deeper understanding about the topic, its like he's really enjoying the conversation

  • One Piece is Love - One Piece is Life

    I currently have to write a small paper on Zero-Knowledge Proofs for a class I am taking and this video is amazing for building a basic understanding of the topic

  • DeLesslin George-Warren

    LOVED his convo with the Child. He’s a good educator.

  • Gaming_With_Arzan
    Gaming_With_Arzan 3 months ago +875

    Without attending a single lecture, I know he is a great teacher and his students love him. There.. zero knowledge proof.

    • p5eudo
      p5eudo 25 days ago

      Absolutely. This guy is great.

    • Gaming_With_Arzan
      Gaming_With_Arzan Month ago

      @CoolAverage201 Nah lol 😂

    • CoolAverage201
      CoolAverage201 Month ago

      bro u good

    • QuiLL TheGod
      QuiLL TheGod Month ago +10

      0 knowledge proof would be If I show you 100 graduates and their median wage would be 50k but each time you see one of his students he makes 100k. Then I repeat the process 1000 times and the outcome is the same each time. That would(statistically) prove that he is a great teacher. (you would have 0 knowledge about him or his lessons). But the outcome would be favorable predictable each time. Hope this helps!

    • y'all ugly
      y'all ugly Month ago +9

      You just made an assumption based on the video lol not zero knowledge proof

  • Cat
    Cat 18 hours ago

    It's a shame that no one mentioned Eli Ben-sasson or any of the modern protocols that actually made it practical. SNARKs, STARKs, Bullet-proofs. Etc.
    It's like talking about basketball and not mentioning Michael Jordan, or any of the teams or matches.

  • EE Ved
    EE Ved 7 days ago

    i love this guy
    I wish I was as passionate about something as him

  • iktunutki
    iktunutki Month ago +1

    "How amazing would it be to have a drug and prove that the drug works and yet not have to reveal the structure of the compound?"
    This sounds like a terrible example to me. Are there any advantages to this, beyond the financial incentive?

  • Amazing weather
    Amazing weather 3 months ago

    This guys is so good at explaining wow 😯

  • The23rdGamer
    The23rdGamer 3 months ago +833

    Fantastic teacher. If it wasn't for his explanation, I would've been too intimidated to stay on this video about a topic I knew I'd struggle with.

    • Blissful Apathy
      Blissful Apathy Month ago

      It's just a TheXvid video. How on Earth does a person get too intimidated to watch a TheXvid video on a computer science concept? It sounds like you've never experienced anything difficult in your life. You should try it, builds character.

    • vipahman
      vipahman 3 months ago

      The sad part is that most teachers would be like this if they have an interactive student in front of them. Unfortunately, our students prefer to interact on social media rather than in person.

    • Want - Diverse Content
      Want - Diverse Content 3 months ago

      @HIT BLAZ Before I watch, the answer us taste

    • Brian Kish
      Brian Kish 3 months ago +1

      @HIT BLAZ great question

    • Submitted by Mail
      Submitted by Mail 3 months ago +1

      I dont think the emperor is wearing clothes.